Regional uncertainties continue to curtail growth


SENSITIVE RISK for enterprise

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  • Financing risk

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GDP USD43.744bn (World ranking 91, World Bank 2019)
Population 10.102mn (World ranking 89, World Bank 2019)
Form of state Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy
Head of government King ABDULLAH II ibn Hussein al-Hashemi
Next elections 2020 general, 2021 Presidential
  • King Abdullah remains popular and has the support of the military and security services
  • Relatively sound relations with the EU, U.S., IFIs and GCC countries which provide political, financial and technical support
  • Significant producer of phosphates and potash
  • Frequent debt rescheduling has reduced external debt service to manageable levels
  • Geographic location and recent history provide a negative political aspect of the country’s borders
  • Socio-political differences between Trans-Jordanians and Palestinians (approximately 60% of the population) with a significant proportion of the latter group largely disenfranchised
  • Social pressures result from high unemployment
  • Workers’ remittances, particularly from the GCC area, and foreign aid distributions from the same source are subject to prevailing politics and the vagaries of international oil prices
  • Lack of natural resources, other than phosphates
  • Large fiscal and current account deficits

Trade structure by destination/origin

(% of total)

Exports Rank Imports
United States 22.8%
16.6% Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia 9.9%
13.6% China
Iraq 9.1%
8.7% United States
India 8.9%
4.6% Germany
United Arab Emirates 4%
4.1% United Arab Emirates

Trade structure by product

(% of total)

Exports Rank Imports
Articles of apparel & clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 25%
11.73% Road vehicles
Inorganic chemicals, compounds of precious metals, and related materials 13.34%
7.78% Petroleum, petroleum products and related materials
Fertilizers other than group 272 13%
7.65% Machinery and mechanical appliances
Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 8.33%
6.76% Electrical machinery and equipment
Salt, Sulphur, earths and stone, plastering materials, lime and cement 7.26%
4.74% Plastical products


Euler Hermes

Economic Research Team

Manfred Stamer

Senior Economist for Emerging Europe and the Middle East